Specifications & References

Specifications

Ahiflower Oil® is the richest combined effective omega-3+6 fatty acid source from a single non-GMO plant. Ahiflower Oil meets or exceeds all FDA requirements and EU specifications for purity in dietary vegetable oils. Manufacturers seeking to formulate commercial products with Ahiflower Oil may obtain a more detailed specifications sheet after being qualified by Nature’s Crops as an Ahiflower customer.

Ahiflower Seed Oil Specification Sheet

References

The following literature references provide substantiation of emerging clinical science on the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid consumption in foods and dietary supplements.

  1. Mozaffarian, D., Wu J.H.Y. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease, Effects on Risk Factors, Molecular Pathways, and Clinical Events, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 58, No. 20, 2012.
  2. Kris-Etherton. P.M., Harris WS, Appel LJ. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002;106:2747-57.
  3. Surette, M. The science behind dietary omega-3 fatty acids. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2008; 178(2):177-180.
  4. Holman, R.T. (1998) The slow discovery of the importance of omega-3 essential fatty acids in human health. J. Nutr. 128: 427S – 433S.
  5. Horrobin, D. F., (1981) Loss of delta-6-desaturase activity as a key factor in aging. Medical Hypotheses 7(9): 1211-1220.
  6. Lavie, C. J., Milani, R.V., Mehra, M. R., Ventura H.,O. (2009) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases. J. Am. Coll. Cardiology 54(7):585-594.
  7. Akiba, S., Murata, T., Kitakani, K., Sato. T. (2000) Involvement of lipoxygenase pathway in docosapentaenoic acid-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 23(11):1293-1297.
  8. Zuijdgeest-van Leeuwen, S.D., Dagnelie, P.C., Rietveld, T., et al. Incorporation and washout of orally administered n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in different plasma lipid fractions. Br J Nutr 1999;82:481-8.
  9. Surette, M.E., Koumenis, I.L., Edens, M.B., et al. Inhibition of leukotriene synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and tolerability of a novel dietary fatty acid formulation in healthy adult subjects. Clin Ther 2003;25:948-71.
  10. Calder, P.C., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and inflammatory diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:1505S-19S.
  11. Celotti ,F., Durand, T. The metabolic effects of inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase and of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 are an advancement in the efficacy and safety of anti-inflammatory therapy. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2003;71:147-62.
  12. SanGiovanni, J.P., Chew, E.Y. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. Prog Retin Eye Res 2005;24:87-138.
  13. Jeffrey, B.G., Weisinger, HS, Neuringer, M, et al. The role of docosahexaenoic acid in retinal function. Lipids 2001;36:859-71.
  14. Kris-Etherton, P.M., Taylor, D.S., Yu-Poth, S., et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:179S-88S.
  15. Simopoulos, A.P., Leaf, A., Salem, N. Jr. Essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Ann Nutr Metab 1999;43:127-30.
  16. Cunnane, S., Drevon, C.A., Harris, W., et al. Recommendations for intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy adults. ISSFAL Newsl 2004;11:12-25.
  17. Kris-Etherton, P.M., Harris, W.S., Appel, L.J. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002;106:2747-57.
  18. Simopoulos, A.P. (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega6/omega3 essential fatty acids. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 56(8):365-379.
  19. A study of the diet and metabolism of Eskimos. Meddr Grōnland 1914.
  20. Preventing restenosis with fish oils following coronary angioplasty. A meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 1993.
  21. Are dietary recommendations for the use of fish oils sustainable? CMAJ, March 17, 2009
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  23. Potential clinical benefits of dietary supplementation with marine-life oil. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991.
  24. Therapeutic use of fish oils in companion animals. JAVMA, December 11, 2011.
  25. Omega-3: Global Product Trends and Opportunities report, Progressive Grocer, August 2011
  26. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in High Demand, Atlanta Natural Health Examiner, November 2011
  27. Are dietary recommendations for the use of fish oils sustainable? CMAJ, March 17, 2009
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  29. www.Nutraingredients-usa.com, January 19, 2011.
  30. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, mongabay.com, September 2009
  31. Advice to Eat Fish Hurts Environment: Scientists, CBC News – Technology & Science, March 2009
  32. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, mongabay.com, September 2009
  33. Low Levels of Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Cause Memory Problems, Neurology, (Journal of the American Academy of Neurology), February 28, 2012.
  34. www.goedomega3.com
  35. Lembke P et al. Influence of omega-3 (n3) index on performance and wellbeing in young adults after heavy eccentric exercise. J Sports Sci Med. 2014 Jan 20;13(1):151-6.
  36. Jouris KB et al. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise. J Sports Sci Med. 2011 Sep 1;10(3):432-8.
  37. Yoshino J. Effect of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on the muscle transcriptome in older adults. Physiol Rep. 2016 Jun;4(11).
  38. Smith GI et al. Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jul;102(1):115-22.
  39. Kamolrat T, Gray SR. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Mar 22;432(4):593-8.
  40. Rodacke CL et al. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb;95(2):428-36.
  41. Tsuchiya Y et al. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited joint range of motion after eccentric contractions. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016 Jun;116(6):1179-88.
  42. Ng, T.H.; Britton, G.J.; Hill, E.V.; Verhagen, J.; Burton, B.R.; Wraith, D.C. Regulation of adaptive immunity; the role of interleukin-10. Front Immunol 2013, 4, 129
  43. Nieman DC (1995). Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exercise. Thorax 50:1229–1231
  44. Lefort N. Dietary Buglossoides arvensis oil increases circulating n-3 PUFA in a dose-dependent manner and enhances LPS-stimulated whole blood interleukin-10 – a randomized placebo controlled trial. J Nutrients 2017 (in publication).